As far back as the 1990s, long before anyone had actually isolated
graphene – a honeycomb lattice of carbon just one atom thick – theorists
were predicting extraordinary properties at the edges of graphene
nanoribbons. Now physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence
Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), and their colleagues at the
University of California at Berkeley, Stanford University, and other
institutions, have made the first precise measurements of the “edge
states” of well-ordered nanoribbons.